Today, thanks to broadband cable and other breakthroughs, the technological landscape is unrecognizable compared with even a few years ago.
Consumers now enjoy video content and Internet access from multiple services on multiple devices. They can go online anytime, anywhere with more options and opportunities than ever.
Cable television originated in the United States almost simultaneously in Arkansas, Oregon and Pennsylvania in to enhance poor reception of over-the-air television signals in mountainous or geographically remote areas.
In the late s, cable operators began to take advantage of their ability to pick up broadcast signals from hundreds of miles away. Byalmost cable systems servingsubscribers were in business.
The growth of cable through the importation of distant signals was viewed as competition by local television stations.
Responding to broadcast industry concerns, the Federal Communications Commission FCC expanded its jurisdiction and placed restrictions on the ability of cable systems to import distant television signals.
In the early s, the FCC continued its restrictive policies by enacting regulations that limited the ability of cable operators to offer movies, sporting events, and syndicated programming. The clamp on growth had adverse financial effects, especially on access to capital.
Money for cable growth and expansion all but dried up for several years.
However, concerted industry efforts at the federal, state, and local levels resulted in the continued lessening. This venture led to the creation of a national satellite distribution system that used a newly approved domestic satellite transmission.
Satellites changed the business dramatically, paving the way for the explosive growth of program networks. The second service to use the satellite was a local television station in Atlanta that broadcast primarily sports and classic movies.
The station, owned by R. By the end of the decade, growth had resumed, and nearly 16 million households were cable subscribers.
The Cable Act established a more favorable regulatory framework for the industry, stimulating investment in cable plant and programming on an unprecedented level. Deregulation provided by the Act had a strong positive effect on the rapid growth of cable services. This was the largest private construction project since Atlanta speed hookup companies act 1985 section War II. By the end of the decade, nearly 53 million households subscribed to cable, and cable program networks had increased from 28 in to 79 by Some of this growth, however, was accompanied by rising prices for consumers, incurring growing concern among policy makers.
By the end ofthere were cable programming services available nationwide, in addition to many regional programming networks. By the spring ofthe number of national cable video networks had grown to By that time, the average subscriber could choose from a wide selection of quality programming, with more than 57 percent of all subscribers receiving at least 54 channels, up from 47 in And at the end of the decade, approximately 7 in 10 television households, more than 65 million, had opted to subscribe to cable.
The upgrade to broadband networks enabled cable companies to introduce high-speed Internet access to customers in the mids, and competitive local telephone and digital cable services later in the decade.
Enactment of the Telecommunications Act of once again dramatically altered the regulatory and public policy landscape for telecommunications services, spurring new competition and greater choice for consumers. Almost simultaneously, Paul Allen, a founder of Microsoft, began acquiring his own stable of cable properties. A Atlanta speed hookup companies act 1985 section deregulatory environment for cable operating and programming companies enabled the cable industry to accelerate deployment of broadband services, allowing consumers in urban, suburban, and rural areas to entertain more choices in information, communications, and entertainment services.
As the new millennium got under way, cable companies began pilot testing video services that could change the way people watch television. The industry was proceeding cautiously in these arenas, because the cost of upgrading customer-premise equipment for compatibility with these services was substantial and required new business models that were both expansive and expensive.
Lower cost digital set-top boxes that started to become the norm in customer homes in the mid s proved effective in accommodating the launch of many of the new video services.
In general, however, more expensive technology would still be required for cable to begin delivery of advances such as high definition television services, being slowly introduced by off-air broadcast stations as well as by cable networks such as HBO, Showtime, Discovery, and ESPN.
The study showed that roughly two of every three U. Digital cable Atlanta speed hookup companies act 1985 section be found in 18 percent of U. As for data services, the research revealed that 20 percent of cable customers with PCs are using high-speed modems today.
Cable has quickly become the technology of choice for such services, outpacing rival technologies, such as digital subscriber line DSL service, offered by phone companies, by a margin of 2 to 1.
Subscribership to high-speed Internet access service via cable modems had grown to more than 10 million by the end of the third quarter of As for telephone service using the cable conduit, growth was evident in all the limited market areas where such service was offered. More than 2 million customers were using cable for their phone connections by mid To accommodate accelerating demand, cable programmers are rapidly expanding their menu of digital cable offerings.
Byabout nationally-delivered cable networks were available, Atlanta speed hookup companies act 1985 section that number growing steadily.
A security device called a CableCARD is provided by cable operators to allow cable customers to view encrypted digital programming after it is authorized to do so by the cable operator.
Competitive digital phone service gained momentum as cable introduced Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP telephone services. At the start ofcable Atlanta speed hookup companies act 1985 section counted a total of about 5 million telephone customers, representing VoIP customers and customers for traditional circuit switched telephone service.
One year later, at the end ofNCTA estimated that number had reachedToday, cable provides video entertainment, Internet connectivity, and digital telephone service to millions of consumers.
Click on the graph above for a more in depth view. The s and s Cable television originated in the United States almost simultaneously in Arkansas, Oregon and Pennsylvania in to enhance poor reception of over-the-air television signals in mountainous or geographically remote areas. The s Byalmost cable systems servingsubscribers were in business.
The s In the early s, the FCC continued its restrictive policies by enacting regulations that limited the ability of cable operators to offer movies, sporting events, and syndicated programming. However, concerted industry efforts at the federal, state, and local levels resulted in the continued lessening of restrictions on cable throughout the decade.
The s The Cable Act established a more favorable regulatory framework for the industry, stimulating investment in cable plant and programming on an unprecedented level.
Laura Lazar, Chapter Party Committee, Piedmont Management Associates. large as a full page, which has been printed in the Atlanta Journal. Constitution for several features a computer with DSL Internet hook-up, copier, scanner and fax.