The river was named for the extensive lumber trade in the region in the early 19th century. Purnell Swett was the Lumbee tribal chairman, but his term is being finished out by former councilwoman Sharon Hunt. They unsuccessfully sought federal recognition thereafter. Inafter a request from tribal members, the Robeson County Commissioners conducted a tribal referendum on the tribal name.
The Lumbee claim to be descendants of Lumbee tribe blue eyes Cheraw and related Siouan -speaking tribes originally inhabiting part of the coastal regions of the state of North Carolina. However, a significant minority of the Indians claim to be descendants of the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora. Inthe United States Congress passed H. With the termination Congress excluded the Lumbee from receiving the federal services ordinarily provided to federally
Lumbee tribe blue eyes tribes through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
As the only tribe in this circumstance,  the Lumbee have since sought full federal recognition through the congressional legislation. Such recognition through congressional legislation is supported by some federally recognized tribes and opposed by others.
Until it was part of Bladen County. Britt is not a surname traditionally associated with Lumbee families. A free person of color was the category for people not identifiably as white or a slave. They thought the Roanoke colony went to Lumbee tribe blue eyes Croatan people for help, but weather prevented the English from seeking survivors.
After that, English historians never mention the colony again. The scholarly consensus is that the colonists died of starvation. It was a time when the Democrats were seeking to regain political power in North Carolina. They had lost to an interracial Populist — Republican coalition in the previous election. It enabled them to have a school separate from that for the children of emancipated slaves. Whites maintained "Lumbee tribe blue eyes" schools for themselves. In Lawson had written of Hatteras Indians: Barton said very old members of the tribe told him that, before the age of automobiles, there was annual horse-and-wagon traffic to the coast each fall to catch fish and gather salt.
Ina group of hunters and trappers strayed into the hilly landscape and stumbled upon a tribe of Indians. But most astonishing was the fact that they spoke nearly perfect Elizabethan English. Since there was no distress symbol carved on the tree, they assumed the Roanoke
Lumbee tribe blue eyes went to the Croatans for help. After that, English historians never mention them again.
However, English historians did mention a group of North Carolina Indians who spoke English fluently, practiced Christianity, and called themselves the Croatan Indians. There were also twenty or thirty English surnames in the Croatan tribe that existed in the original Roanoke colony.
In Robeson CountyLumbee ancestors were only officially classified as Indian after Reconstruction in Prior toLumbee ancestors were usually described as colored, free colored, other free, mullato, mustie, mustees, or mixt blood in surviving Lumbee tribe blue eyes. Despite the lack of direct genealogical proof; various Department of Interior representatives such as Charles F.
PierceO. William Sturtevant sand Dr. In the first federal census ofthe ancestors of the Lumbee were enumerated as Free Persons of Color.
Up until the census, census enumerators often categorized individuals themselves, Lumbee tribe blue eyes determining the race of a particular individual. Inthe Secretary of the Interior was sent by the U. Senate to investigate the tribal rights of the Indians of Robeson County. This tradition is supported by their looks, their complexion, color of skin, hair and eyes, by their manners, customs and habits, and by the fact that while they are, in part, of undoubted Indian origin, they have no Indian names and no Indian language.
He was able to account for 41 of those direct surnames among the Lumbee, and still more that had been altered in some manner. Genealogists Paul Heinegg and Dr. To this day the descendants still live in Roberson County,
Lumbee tribe blue eyes Carolina. They are known as the Lumbee Indians.
Weeks and Professor Breaton Berry, Professor Adolph Dial and Lumbee Tribal historian, Lewis Barton subscribe to the theory that surviving remnants of the Roanoke settlement may have assimilated into the indigenous tribes. The existence of fair skinned Indians in Roberson, North Carolina substantiates the theory that the Roanoke colonists and perhaps the other tribes blended in with the Croatan and other Tidewater, Virginia Indian tribes, including the Powhatan and Lumbee Indians.
Many of the Surnames of the original Colonist are still found amoung the Lumbee Indians of today. He contended that the Cherokee stayed in the swamps of Robeson County when the campaign ended with some of their Lumbee tribe blue eyes captives. Being still subject to attack by the Iroquois, they finally—between and —became incorporated with the Catawba……They are mentioned as with the Catawba but speaking their own distinct Lumbee tribe blue eyes as late as Adair.
The last notice of them inwhen their remnant, reduced by war and disease to 50 or 60, were still living with the Catawba. In it appeared again, and this time destroyed nearly half the tribe. Scholars did not suggest there was any significant, if any, influence from the Cheraw, or any other smaller Siouan-speaking tribes, in the Robeson County area. Swanton continued to do research on Native Americans of the Southeast.
Inhe published his assertion where? In the 21st century, these tribes are all extinct except for a small band of Waccamaw who live on the shores of Lake Waccamaw in the heart of their old country.
Swanton traced the migration "Lumbee tribe blue eyes" tribes in the East. Swanton said that all of them, with exception to the Keyauwee, were mentioned as travelling west to join the Catawba; Swanton argued that the Keyauwee were probably the most influential contributor to the self-identified Indian population of Robeson County. He thought it was more appropriate to call Robeson County Indians descendants Lumbee tribe blue eyes the Cheraw, as the Cheraw were more well known from the historic record.
A number of Robeson County residents reject the modern Lumbee label and claim descent from the Tuscarora Indians. The Iroquoian -speaking North Carolina tribe suffered defeat at the hands of the British colonists and Indian allies in About one-third of the surviving Tuscarora left their homes in northeastern North Carolina to migrate north to New Yorkwhere they joined the Iroquois League as its sixth nation by Tuscarora tribal leaders in New York determined that the emigration was complete byand said that any Tuscarora who decided not to migrate to New York with the council fire were choosing to live separate from the Tuscarora Nation and would no longer be considered members.
Because of this historic determination by the tribal council, the Lumbee claim to Tuscarora heritage is contested by the federally recognized Lumbee tribe blue eyes Nation of New York. Also, their descendants thus could not claim to have continuity with the tribe and its traditions, which is required for federal recognition as a tribe. Proponents of the Tuscarora hypothesis make arguments that first the migration trail of Lumbee ancestors from coastal southern Virginia to Lumbee tribe blue eyes County passed through the territory in which the Tuscarora had lived.
This made intermarriage with Tuscarora a possibility. Second, contemporary anecdotal references to members of the outlaw Henry Berry Lowrie gang of the Reconstruction era described them as of partial Tuscarora descent. In the s, some Robeson County Indians made contact with individual members of the Mohawk Nationwho are part of the Iroquois Confederacywhich the Tuscarora were admitted to in The mostly rural Robeson County Indians began to express a Tuscarora identity again.
They strongly objected to the Lumbee name and to the Cheraw theory of ancestry. These people came together to form the Tuscarora Nation of North Carolina, which is recognized by neither the United States government nor the federally recognized Tuscarora Nation of New York. Traditional Indian trails through Robeson County provided paths for trading and migration. Oxendine mentions the Lowrie trail,  which skirted the central part of Lumbee country.
This trail linked to the trading path from Virginia to western Lumbee tribe blue eyes Carolina at its western end. In the early decades of the 20th century, various Department of Interior representatives  described the Lumbee as having Native American origin, and assigned them variously to one tribe or another. InCarl Seltzera physical anthropologist engaged by the federal Department of the Interiorconducted an anthropometric study of several hundred self-identified Indian individuals in Robeson County.
He concluded the majority were Indian. But, researchers no longer consider his tests as valid determinants of ethnicity ; they have been found to have been flawed. The same report also claimed that no Indians lived in Bladen County. Land patents and deeds filed with the colonial administrations of Virginia, North and South Carolina during this period show that individuals claimed as Lumbee ancestors were migrating into southern North Carolina along the typical routes of colonial migration from Virginia and obtaining land deeds in the same manner as any other migrants.
But, the Lumbee petition for recognition based on Siouan connection, prepared by Lumbee River Legal Services in the s, shows that the Cheraw Old Fields, sold to a Thomas Grooms in the yearwere located not in North Carolina at all. They were located in South Carolina near the current town of Cheraw. The year proved to be critical for all free people of color in North Carolina. Free people of color were stripped of various political and civil rights which they had enjoyed for almost two generations.
They could no longer vote, bear arms without a license, serve on juries, or serve in the state militia. Noel Locklear, in State v. Locklearwas convicted for the illegal possession of firearms. Chavers, like Locklear, was convicted. As the war progressed and the Confederacy began to experience increasing labor shortages, it began to rely on conscription labor.
Robeson County, along with most eastern North Carolina counties, Lumbee tribe blue eyes to conscript young free men of color. A few were shot for attempting to evade conscription, and others attempted to escape from work at Fort Fisher.
Some succumbed to starvation, disease and despair. Documentation of conscription among the free people of in Robeson County is difficult to locate.
The practice may have been limited to a few Lumbee tribe blue eyes areas of the county. Others tried to avoid coerced labor by hiding in the swamps. During that period, some men from Robeson County operated as guerrillas for the Union Armysabotaging the efforts of the Confederacy, and seeking retribution against their Confederate neighbors. The Lowrie gang included Indians and also 2 freed slaves and 1 white. The Lowries claimed Lumbee tribe blue eyes be Tuscarora Indians.
The gang committed two murders during the Civil War and were suspected in several thefts and robberies. This was in the period of the Union General William T. Lumbee Jamie Oxendine and U. American indians by the way dont have blue eyes,black people hair,or brown I know the lumbee tribe is a tri race (black, white, and american.
The unsolved mystery of a group of Native Americans who appeared to explorers to have European features, including blue eyes and fair hair. Many Lumbee Indians have caucasian features which include blond or red hair, Blue, gray or green eyes and white skin. Culturally they are.