An increasing number of U. Using data from the first wave — of the National Survey of Families and Households NSFHthis study examines differences in child well-being between children living with interethnic parents and those living with same-ethnic parents. Results provide only limited evidence that child well-being is lower among children living with interethnic parents. Compared with children in same-ethnic families, children living with interethnic parents exhibited higher levels of negative affect, and this difference could not be explained by differences in background or family characteristics, levels of parents relationship stressors, or parenting quality.
At the same time, however, no differences were found in global well-being, positive affect, or Factors influencing interracial marrigaes problems. Children living with interethnic parents may face some greater difficulties that warrant concern, but they do not appear to face pervasive disadvantages. Rates of racial and ethnic intermarriage in the United States have been increasing considerably.
Nevertheless, we know relatively little about how such children are faring. This study considers marriages between major U. The first aim of this study is to examine whether child well-being Factors influencing interracial marrigaes between children living with interethnic and same-ethnic parents. To go beyond some of the limitations of much existing work, we use nationally representative data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households NSFH.
We focus on a broad age range of children, from 5 to 18 years old, and consider four different indicators of child well-being including global well-being, positive affect, negative affect, and behavioral problems.
A second aim of this study is to assess whether other family characteristics and processes that differ by interethnic status explain any differences that are found in child well-being.
In addition to controlling for demographic and family characteristics, two potential explanatory factors are considered: Both relationship stressors and poor parenting practices negatively influence child well-being e. We consider several indicators of relationship stressors marital conflict, nonshared values, lack of social support and parenting quality parental monitoring, having difficult and enjoyable times with children, parental warmth and harsh discipline.
A strength of the current study is that it includes the self-reported racial and ethnic identification of both spouses. It should be noted, however, that children growing up in a family with parents who self-identify as members of two different racial groups, or alternatively, with parents who Factors influencing interracial marrigaes with the same racial group may or may not hold a consistent self-identification. Our study, therefore, addresses the question of whether children who are growing up in a family with parents who self-identify as members of two different racial-ethnic groups experience more negative outcomes than those who are growing up "Factors influencing interracial marrigaes" a family with two parents who identify with the same racial-ethnic group.
Although having data from both parents and their children would be ideal to better address some of this complexity, having parental reports does allow us to examine the implications of differences in their racial-ethnic self-identification for their children.
A few early scholars suggested that children in interethnic families were at greater risk of negative outcomes than children in same-ethnic families, but provided little empirical evidence to support their conclusions.
Results often based on nonrepresentative samples e.
Even some of these early studies, however, provided mixed findings or suggested no differences. More recent research has focused on adolescent well-being and multiracial offspring in particular, with a few studies based on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health Add Health. Findings from these studies provide some limited evidence for a negative relationship between interethnic status and some adolescent outcomes.
These studies also suggest, however, that the relationship between interethnic status and youth outcomes depends on several factors including the way multiracial identification was measured, the specific multiracial and monoracial groups included for comparison, and the well-being outcomes examined. For example, Stephan and Stephan defined mixed heritage as any combination of white, Asian, and Hispanic ancestry, and did not find multiracial offspring to be at greater risk for negative outcomes than monoracial offspring.
Fryer and colleagues compared black-white biracial youth to black monoracial and white monoracial youth, and found black-white youth were involved in more risky and antisocial behavior than both monoracial groups, but their levels of academic achievement fell in between them.
Cheng and Lively compared six different multiracial groups with their associated monoracial counterparts across 13 adolescent outcomes.
Results varied by the specific subgroups compared and the outcome examined. They Factors influencing interracial marrigaes evidence that multiracial adolescents fared less well than monoracial adolescents on some outcomes, but they were comparable on other outcomes.
In a recent review of the literature on multiracial individuals and psychological well-being, Shih and Factors influencing interracial marrigaes concluded that the evidence for poorer adjustment among multiracial individuals was decidedly Overall, the limited and mixed findings of previous research provide no clear or strong pattern regarding whether children in interethnic families are generally fairing more poorly Factors influencing interracial marrigaes their peers Factors influencing interracial marrigaes in same-ethnic families.
Interethnic "Factors influencing interracial marrigaes" may experience greater relationship stressors, which stem from experiencing more marital conflict, having fewer shared values, and receiving less social support from others than same-ethnic couples. A simple conceptual model would take the form:.
Prior research provides some support for the link between interethnic status and relationship stressors. The presence of relationship stressors has been linked to poorer quality parenting. Despite some research suggesting that differences exist between interethnic and same-ethnic couples in levels of relationship stressors and parenting quality, and the large body of research linking relationship stressors and parenting quality to child well-being, prior research has not tested the extent to which differences in relationship stressors or parenting quality can account for differences in child outcomes between interethnic and same-ethnic families.
In addition to considering the role of relationship stressors and parenting quality, we also control for several background and family characteristics that may be associated with interethnic status and child well-being. Younger and older children often exhibit different levels of well-being, with problem behaviors tending to increase during adolescence Kann et al.
The sampling design oversampled several groups including minorities, recently married persons, single parents, and cohabiters. Descriptive results will be presented using the sample weight to allow for national representativeness. Regression results will be presented with unweighted data. Some have argued that using weights in multiple regression analysis is unnecessary or can lead to inaccurate results if independent variables in the models e. Nevertheless, we tested the regression models with and without sample weights and the results did not yield substantively different conclusions.
Given that most of the child outcome measures were only available for children five or older, only married couples with a focal child ages five "Factors influencing interracial marrigaes" 18 were included, reducing the sample to Factors influencing interracial marrigaes, Next, we eliminated respondents who did not have a completed spousal questionnaire, reducing the sample to 1, Of the 1, main respondents, were in interethnic marriages.
We combined responses of Mexican American, Puerto Factors influencing interracial marrigaes, Cuban, and other Hispanic into a single Hispanic category, reducing the number of categories to six. All other combinations have less than fifteen couples. Four measures of child well-being are examined: All items in these measures come from the main respondent and are in reference to a focal child in the household. Standardized scales were created Factors influencing interracial marrigaes factor analyses to signify positive and negative child affect.
Behavior problems is the final measure of child well-being. The first item comes from a question asked of the main respondent: The second measure of relationship stressors is a constructed variable tapping the extent to which the couple has nonshared values. Both the main respondent and spouse were asked to rate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with ten statements: A higher score indicates a greater discrepancy between the main respondent and their spouse.
The third measure of relationship stressors is low social support. By adding across the five items, this measure is a
Factors influencing interracial marrigaes of the number of domains in which the main respondent received no help from anyone. Quality of parenting taps three general domains: The second domain reflects the quality of the parent-child relationship, and is assessed with two measures. The last aspect of parenting quality consists of two measures: Unlike previous questions that are asked in reference to the focal child, items used in these measures are asked in reference to all children in the household, and therefore reflect parenting quality at a more general level.
Warmth and harsh discipline are both two-item scales. White omitted reference groupBlack, Hispanic, and all others. Education of the main respondent is measured as a set of dummy variables: The log of income is used in the regression analysis to minimize skewness. Age of the focal child is a continuous variable ranging from five to 18 years. The number of children in the household under 19 years of age was created from information contained in the household roster.
Length of the marriage was constructed by subtracting the date of the marriage from the date of when the interview took place, and is represented in years.
The presence of any blended children in the "Factors influencing interracial marrigaes" i. Factor analysis demonstrated that all scales were uni-dimensional. Correlations between control variables were all below. Correlations between the relationship stressor measures, and correlations between the parenting quality measures, were all below.
To deal with missing data, multiple imputation five imputations was conducted using the ICE program in Stata Stata Corporation, We begin by comparing differences between interethnic and same-ethnic families on all of the study variables. Mean levels are reported for continuous measures, with tests of statistical significance based on t-tests.
Percentages are reported for categorical measures, and tests of significance are based on the chi-square test. We present two models for each of the four child outcomes. The interethnic families in our study differed significantly from same-ethnic families on several background and family characteristics Table 1. Focal children with interethnic parents were somewhat younger, on average, than those with same-ethnic parents, by about one year.
The majority Factors influencing interracial marrigaes main respondents and therefore, couples in same-ethnic families were White whereas Whites and Hispanics made up the majority of main respondents in the interethnic group and White-Hispanic marriages were the most common. Interethnic parents had lower income and were in marriages of shorter duration.
Weighted Means Standard Errors or Percentages. Interethnic parents reported a greater dissimilarity
Factors influencing interracial marrigaes values than same-ethnic parents, but they did not differ much in levels of marital conflict or in receiving social support from others. There is no evidence Factors influencing interracial marrigaes parenting quality differed between interethnic and same-ethnic families, based on the five indicators examined here.
Factors influencing interracial marrigaes
There is only limited evidence that child well-being is lower among children living with interethnic parents. Compared with children in same-ethnic families, children living with interethnic parents exhibited higher levels of negative affect.
There were no differences, however, in global Factors influencing interracial marrigaes, positive affect, or behavior problems. Results from the regression analysis Table 2 reinforce previous findings. The bivariate models replicate the findings from Table 1and the addition of controls and mediating factors had little influence on the effect of interethnic status on child well-being.
Given that there were few differences in relationship stressors or parenting quality by interethnic status, it is not surprising that Factors influencing interracial marrigaes factors did not help explain the association between interethnic status and negative affect.
These factors were, however, significantly associated with child well-being. In particular, marital conflict was associated with lower levels of child well-being, whereas parental warmth and a positive parent-child relationship more enjoyable and less difficult were associated with higher levels of child well-being.
Many of the background and family characteristics were also associated with child outcomes in expected ways. For example, child well-being tended to be higher Factors influencing interracial marrigaes girls and younger children, and in families with higher income, fewer children, and marriages of longer duration. This study examined differences in child well-being between children living with interethnic parents and those living with same-ethnic parents, drawing upon nationally representative data and Factors influencing interracial marrigaes on a broad age range of children and four indicators of child well-being.
We conclude that children living with interethnic parents may face some greater difficulties that warrant concern, but they do not appear to face pervasive disadvantages. Social Context Factors and Attitudes toward Interracial Relationships on a interactions with people of different racial backgrounds positively influence students. Interracial MarriageInterracial marriage is the term used to describe "racial and nonracial factors that influence spouse choice in black/white marriages.
Keywords: child well-being, interethnic, interracial, multiethnic, multiracial. These negative factors that affect the couple's relationship may lead to poorer.